The brain is our last frontier and consciousness is expanding | Dr. Heather Berlin | [email protected]


Translator: hila scherba
Reviewer: Emma Gon Have you ever looked
into the star filled night sky and been in awe at the enormity of it all and felt really small and wondered
what’s going to happen when you die? Well, I remember when I first had
this experience, I was just 5 years old. I lay awake all night,
looking up into the night sky, and I’d realized for the first time
that one day I would cease to exist. And then I thought, “Well, even if my body doesn’t exist,
and I can’t communicate to anyone else, can I at least still keep
my own inner thoughts and have my own inner world? So the next day, I asked my father,
who is a physician, I said, “Dad, where do my thoughts come from?
How can I keep them when I die?” and he said, “Well, they come
from your brain.” I said, “Well how?”
He said, “Actually, we don’t know.” So I said, “What can I be when I grow up, so I can understand
where my thoughts come from?” and he said, “From the medical
world view, you can be a psychiatrist.” So, that became my life long quest,
not to become a psychiatrist, but to try to understand
how my brain produces my thoughts, my emotions, my sensations. How it is that this amazingly complex, but just, very small,
three-pound piece of matter, all the neurons firing
and neurochemical slushing around – how does it produce the subjective feeling
of, say, smelling a rose or the beautiful colors
you see in a sunset or even when you just close your eyes
and imagine a beautiful sunset, that image in your mind? How do those neurons firing
create that subjective experience or the emotions you feel, like when you see
your newborn child for the first time – I just had my beautiful daughter;
she’s one year old now – or when you hear a beautiful piece
of music that moves you? (Music) You know, the sound waves
are hitting your eardrums; they’re being processed
by your auditory cortex. But something is happening in your brain
that you’re perceiving the music. So where does that take place? When you’re looking at a beautiful image, the photons of light
are hitting you retina, they’re being processed
by your visual cortex. But then there’s something in that; something happens
that perception takes place. So what’s happening? To really understand this we need to look
a little more closely at the brain. The basic unit of the nervous system
is the neuron. It’s a fairly complex cell, but its basic job is simply to transmit
electrical and chemical signals. The human brain has
86 to 100 billion neurons. Each one of those neurons has around 1,000 to 10,000
synapses or connections. So that means, that there are
about 100 trillion connections in the human brain. There are more connections
in the human brain than there are stars in the Milky Way. Think about that. So we have a whole inner cosmos
inside of our head. The brain is basically like
an information processing machine. Everything that you experience from the moment you wake up
from a deep dreamless sleep, until you go back to sleep again,
or into a coma, or death – everything you experience, thoughts,
your emotions, your sensations – they are all being encoded
in these neurons firing, in this information processing machine. But, what’s really interesting is that much of what’s happening
in your brain is actually happening
outside of awareness. It’s a myth that we only use
10% of our brain; we actually use all of our brain;
none of it is redundant. But we’re only conscious
of very little bit of it. But much of what’s happening that’s affecting decisions you’re making,
your behavior, it’s happening because of processes
that are occurring unconsciously, outside of awareness. So how can we measure this in the lab? Well, we can give you stimuli,
like this one, for example, that is either presented
in such a subtle form, or things that are presented so quickly that a person claims
they didn’t see anything, yet it goes on to affect their behavior. Here, for example,
there is a hidden message. Raise your hand if you can see it. A couple of people, OK. I know what you’re thinking now. In the background, in the negative space,
it says S-E-X, right here, see that? (Laughter)
Yeah. And there are the birds and the bees, and the flowers
are kind of loving towards each other. Now, once you see it, you can’t unsee it. If I show you this in an hour,
you’ll see it right away, something changed in your brain. What’s interesting is that the stimulus
stayed exactly the same; the lines and the colors
hitting your retina being processed by your
visual part of your brain; all stayed the same, but what changed
was in your mind, was your perception. What’s out there in reality, doesn’t necessarily
correlate with what you perceive. Here’s another example,
if you look at square A versus square B, you would swear that they’re
different colors, different shades, but this is an illusion;
it’s the shadow illusion, because if I remove the shadow
and just put a line, you can see they’re actually
exactly the same color. So you brain makes
approximations all the time. If we had to process every single
stimuli in the environment, it would be too much because consciousness
has a limited capacity, but the unconscious is vast, in fact,
we still haven’t found its limits. Here is another example. Here it looks as if the circle
in the middle is changing in shape, but it’s actually staying the same size
the whole time. Again, what’s out there in reality doesn’t necessarily correlate
with what you perceive. I think the Gorillaz once said it nicely: “You don’t see with you eyes;
you perceive with you mind.” It’s all in your head. Here’s one more example. This, you can either perceive it
as an old woman looking down, or as a young woman looking away, and you never perceive them both
at the same time, right? And what’s interesting here
is the stimulus stays the same but what’s changing
is your perception in your brain. So that’s what we want to track –
the neural correlates of perception. What we know from neuroscience
is that it seems to be that what correlates with your perception are these coalitions
of neurons firing together. If you think of it like a parliament,
and you have these competing factions, some groups always kind of vote together
and suppress the competing coalitions. That’s sort of what it’s like. It’s like a Darwinian competition
between neurons in your brain. Or you can think of it like when something
is trending on social media, like if each tweet is like
you’re voting for something. After a certain amount of time, enough
tweets will cause something to trend. And that’s kind of what
comes into consciousness until something else takes over. So these things, these coalitions,
stay in power for a fraction of a second to a few seconds. If you attend to something
you can keep it in consciousness longer, and then you might ask,
what brings these neurons together. Another metaphor for it is
that it’s kind of like an orchestra. If each player is like a neuron; it’s not like they’re all
playing the same note, that would be like an epileptic seizure, but, they’re also not playing
in the beginning, warming up, playing different notes. But when they’re playing a symphony,
when they’re all playing in harmony, that’s what it’s like
when these coalitions come together. Also in the brain there seems to be
these two, roughly speaking, systems. You have these areas in red, these
evolutionarily older parts of you brain, the sub-cortical area,
sometimes called your reptilian brain, or called the limbic system,
that’s really sensitive to immediate pleasure,
immediate rewards and punishers. Freud would call it your id impulses, “I want the piece of chocolate cake
right now!” And it gives you that little high
when you get something rewarding. In rats, when we implanted electrodes
into those sub-cortical areas, and they allowed them to self stimulate
directly to the reward center, they would press the lever
and self stimulate over food if they’re food deprived,
water if they’re water deprived, to the point of exhaustion,
so it’s a really powerful drive. But then you have
another part of the brain, called the prefrontal cortex,
these areas here, in blue, that’s the more recently
evolved part of the brain, and humans actually have a larger percent
compared to the rest of the brain, of prefrontal cortex
than any other species. This part of your brain,
kind of called the “executor,” thinks about the future
consequences of your actions, the long term consequences. So there is this rivalry;
so you might say, “I want that piece of chocolate cake now.” But then the prefrontal cortex, or Freud would call
your super ego would say, “Oh, maybe I want to look good
in a bikini, maybe I shouldn’t.” When there is an imbalance,
though, between these two, if you think of the sub-cortical area
like an accelerator pushing you forward, the prefrontal cortex is like the brake,
but if there’s too much acceleration, or the brake isn’t working properly, then it can cause all sorts of impulse
control disorders, different problems. For instance, if there is a lesion
or damage to the prefrontal cortex, or the brake system, it can cause you
to act out impulsively. And this was one of the first cases
to show that. In the 1850’s this man, Phineas Gage,
was working on a railroad. There was an explosion
and this iron rod went straight through his prefrontal cortex, and he had a complete
change of personality. He went from being a mild mannered man
to being impulsive and aggressive, and this was the foundation of the idea that this part of the brain
had to do with impulse control. What was really interesting is other
aspects of his cognition remained intact, like his memory, his intellect,
his ability to sense different things; it was very specific to impulse control. So then you might ask, “What does that mean?
What about my free will? If I am just my brain,
and you can damage it, how much control do I really have?” So, the classic definition of free will is that you’re free if under the exact
same circumstances, and that means, everything in the environment
was exactly the same, and every neuron firing in your brain
was exactly the same, so in that case, for example,
Neo in “The Matrix,” he could have chosen the blue pill, if everything in his environment
was exactly the same, as the red pill. So he could have lived
in blissful ignorance, but no, he chose the red pill. According to neuroscience,
at least our studies show that if everything in your brain
is exactly the same, and everything in the environment
is the same, you can’t choose differently. Our sense of free will
is a bit of an illusion; it comes after the fact; the brain
decides first and we’re aware of it after. Studies show, for example, we can predict
with neuroimaging techniques up to 10 seconds, just looking
at brain activation, before you become consciously aware
of your intention to go left or right. So the brain is what’s deciding first. So free will is sort of an illusion,
but it’s an important illusion, because behavioral studies show that if you diminish a person’s
belief in free will, they’re more likely to act
unethically and unkindly; they’re more likely, for example,
to cheat on a math test. So it’s an important illusion to have, and, the other thing is,
you can’t just go out there and say, “Well, I have no free will.
Now I can go out and act impulsively,” because we hold people
responsible for their actions to the extent that they have self control. Self control
is an evolved part of the brain, and we all have the ability
to do it to different extent. But self control develops over a lifetime. So that’s why, for example,
there are different judicial consequences for a person who commits a crime at 5 years old versus a teenager
versus a young adult. Because the brain actually isn’t
fully mature until around the age 25. In particular, the prefrontal cortex,
that brake system, isn’t fully developed until around the age 25. So you take an adolescent brain and they
have an under mature brake system. In addition, they have
a hyper sensitive limbic system, that subcortical reptilian brain
I was talking about, so they’re much more sensitive
to immediate rewards. And there is a big surge of hormones, so it’s no wonder that adolescents
tend to be more risk taking, a bit more moody and lack impulse control. And there are also individual
differences in impulse control. In fact, there’s this “Marshmallow test.” They give it to kids
who are 3 to 6 years old, and say “You can either have
one marshmallow now, or wait and have two later.” And simply their ability to wait
to have two marshmallows later, at the age around 3 and 6,
predicted all these lifelong consequences, SAT scores, their job attainment,
their health, even their body mass index. You might say, “What can I do?
How can I improve my impulse control?” The good news is that the brain
is actually changing throughout life; we call it neuroplasticity. But there are certain critical
periods of development, where if you expose a person
to certain environmental stimuli, it could really have a big impact
on how the brain develops, and youth is a very malleable time. So strategies that people can do to help
improve their self control, one strategy is to be mindful. So when you’re in a situation
you think you might behave impulsively, stop, count to ten, take a deep breath,
be aware of your surroundings, like for instance now, take a moment
and just listen to the sounds of the room. Now you’re mindful of that. The opposite of mindful is mind empty. That’d be like
when you’re in the movie theater, you’re just eating popcorn,
all of sudden, you look down, it’s gone; you’re on auto pilot. But, when you’re mindful of what’s happening
in your body and externally, and it can help, maybe, to take a moment to bring
the prefrontal cortex online. Another strategy
is to change your environment. Know what your predilections are;
know what your impulses are. If you have a sweet tooth,
don’t put sweet things around the house, don’t put them in full view,
or don’t have them in the house at all. If you’re breaking up with someone,
take their number out of your phone, or tell your friends
not to give you their number. Just changing your environment
can help you change your behavior. And finally, we often think
of our future selves as being a bit better than
our current selves, so we’re more likely to commit
to something now that doesn’t start till later. For example, we’re more likely
to sign up for a gym if the membership doesn’t start
till a month from now. And also put social pressure in place,
maybe there can be an app that says, “so and so didn’t go to the gym today,” or you have to meet you friend at the gym,
and you don’t want to embarrass yourself. All these things, eventually,
if you change your behavior, it will become automatic over time,
and it will change your brain. It’s also not all bad. The youth brain might be
a little bit more impulsive, but studies show that it could be that they might have more propensity
to be more playful and creative. Studies were done that looked
at the brain of a rap artist when they were doing freestyle rap
or jazz musicians when they were improvising, and they found a similar
pattern of activation. So when they were improvising,
they had decreased activation in a part of the brain that had to do
with self awareness, self consciousness, and making sure that your behavior
conforms to social norms, they had increased activation
in part of the prefrontal cortex that had to do with
the internal generation of new ideas. So they were in this state of mind
where they’re generating new ideas, and it was unfiltered, they were allowed
to make novel associations between things without being judged. And it’s like anything, when you’re in the flow,
when you’re in the moment, the second you become self aware,
it can mess up your behavior. Like a tennis player, if they’re playing
and they start thinking – “Exactly what angle
should I hit this ball?” they’re going to mess it up. So people really try to achieve
this flow state, and it could be that the adolescent brain, because their under mature
prefrontal cortex, they might have less filtering and more
ability to be creative and spontaneous. It’s not just improvisation;
there are other states of mind that show a similar brain activation,
similar pattern of this flow state. For example, during hypnosis,
during daydreaming, during meditation or REM sleep where people lose
their sense of self, of time, of place; it’s a free flow of thoughts, perhaps
bubbling up from the unconscious that’s no longer suppressed, and it’s associated
with really positive emotions. The more that I’ve explored
and the more that I learned, the more I really realized
how much we don’t understand about the brain, and about consciousness
and the unconscious. We still need an overarching theory
of consciousness, so we can determine: Does a baby in utero have it?
Does a bee have it? Does a computer have it?
Does the Internet have it? We need an overarching theory. But with the knowledge
that we have so far, what we can take from that is that we should perhaps
try to look inward and try to understand our own conscious,
unconscious drives and motivations and fears,
and bring it to the surface. That’s what things like
psychotherapy can do, or dream analysis,
or even during improvisation. The more we can understand
our own unconscious, the more we can perhaps live more in line
with our long term goals and be happy. There is this saying; it’s written
on the Temple of Apollo at Delphi; it was written by the ancient Greeks
in the 7th century BC, and it’s also, if you look really closely, it’s hanging on the Oracle’s kitchen
in “The Matrix,” and it says, “Know Thyself.” And ultimately that will
hopefully lead to wisdom, which is just having knowledge
and experience and good judgment. I started out studying consciousness in order to find a way
for my thoughts to survive death. But what I got instead
was just a sense of feeling of awe that this three pound piece of matter could even ask these kind of questions
and contemplate the answers. So the question still exists: How does my subjective experience
arise out of matter? Carl Sagan said that we are
the cosmos’ way for to know itself. It’s extraordinary, and with the modern
technology that we have today, it allows us to peer
even deeper into the brain than was even possible
when I was 5 years old. So that makes me
really optimistic that maybe, the next generation of neuroscientists – which could be some of you right here –
could maybe finally unlock this mystery. Thank you. (Applause)

71 thoughts on “The brain is our last frontier and consciousness is expanding | Dr. Heather Berlin | [email protected]

  1. You say "We need an overarching theory of consciousness." The Buddha in your slides had one. Jesus had one. Every mature spiritual person in history and many living ones now have one. Many are on youTube.
    You have only to allow that inner child that originally asked that question to speak again and allow the adult to step outside of the boundaries of the your "scientific" gray matter is all there could possibly be theory. "There is much more Horatio……"

  2. We are interacting here.  That means – at least to me – that I exist, that you exist, and that others exist … yet, the way I see it, without consciousness not one of us has any awareness of our existence.  Hence, I conclude and declare that I AM consciousness … and so are you, and so are all others.  And that is my "over-arching theory of consciousness."
    Many others express it in their own ways.  Many don't seem to care about it at all.  That's life!  Consciousness is what existence is all about.  There are those who say LOVE is what it's all about.  I say they are quite right:  love goes "hand-in-hand" with consciousness.  And I see this as Jesus' point of view on the matter.
    The brain is a part of the body, the physical counterpart of the mind.  Both body and mind are tools of consciousness/love, allowing us to live, to have experiences, to interact.
    How do I know what I am saying is true?  It is not from reading books, attending lectures, watching videos, etc.  It is from coming to know myself through interaction with the world, the universe, the "Supreme Being", the "Creator" … many say God.
    Fair enough?

  3. Great talk. But humans aren't the only mammal with a large prefrontal cortex. Whales and dolphins also have unique features to their brains like ours.

  4. The brain does not produce thought, emotions, sensations. It processes the physical world so our consciousness can observe it, which in turn stimulates thought, emotions, sensations; otherwise there is no self, and if there is no self, who is doing the thinking?

    Right now I am generating information, via my computer. The computer is not generating information via me.

  5. Anyone have an opion on the work of David Chalmers? Also someone mentioned something about reasonably spiritual people: do you have any definition of 'spiritual' with regard to 'consciousness' and 'brain function'?

  6. I saw the title of this talk and thought it would be interesting.  Then, I saw it was a TEDx production and realized that, interesting or not, it would definitely be propaganda.  No thanks.

  7. Great presentation. But lets be honest, we do not have a clue as to how the brain produces our inner experience. She basically said it !

  8. Thoughts come from the brain? We call that "wishful thinking." This is like saying the music from the radio is created by the radio. I don't think so.

  9. This was a very good video and showed many quantitative aspects of consciousness. However, the issue of free will is simply more involved than the presenter relates. All the neuro experiments shows is that choice is a part of our primitive or reptilian mind and our rational mind just rationalizes. We still have free choice and free even though it is our primitive that makes decisions, not our rational mind.

    The only illusion is that our rational mind makes decisions. If we had to wait around for our rational mind to make a decision, we simply would not get anywhere in life.

  10. The Hard Problem of Consciousness implies consciousness is irreducible. There is mental causation but this is impossible if non-reductive physicalism were true as shown by the Exclusion Problem. We need a non-physicalist monism with irreducible consciousness that preserves mental causation: Monistic Idealism

  11. If there is not even a possibility for conscious choice, then how can there be possibility for self control talked about as being important? Who does the choice to control oneself? Or who does the choice to be mindful?
    This has a very strong physicalist ontology as a framework and it leads to this kind of contradictions with consciousness.

  12. Siddhartha Gautama solved the mystery quite thoroughly… Does it matter that he wasn't a neuroscientist? Nor was he nearly as sexy as Dr. Berlin.

  13. Presents high level talk on the power of the brain and the importance of perception. Doesn't understand 50% of the brains in the audience and destroys them with a short skirt.

  14. Did she just base this entire presentation and even use the exact examples in david eaglemans neuroscience book and pass it as her own?

  15. Heather Berlin really, REALLY, reminds me of Amy on The Big Bang Theory. I wonder if the character of Dr Amy Farrah-Fowler is based on Dr Heather Berlin?

  16. Very, very good talk. Hopefully at some point in the future, 'science' proves, beyond a shadow of a doubt that the aware force which gives us conscious awareness lasts forever.
    Perhaps this is a matter quantum physicists can look into as well.

  17. Considering consciousness without considering the existence of life beyond the physical, of a human soul, is a fairly pointless exercise in hoping that you may one day find sentience in the physical brain… The more science delves into the fabulous human brain, the more they become aware themselves that there is NO sentience in that brain.

  18. Modern science claims that from an expanding singularity everything in existence in this universe came into existence, including the forces of nature that the universe functions by, and including you and me with our supposed consciousness', memories and thoughts.

    But now, does everything in existence even exist per se, OR does only the singularity exist in the form of all things, including you and me and our supposed consciousness', memories and thoughts?

    Same experienced reality, just two different perspectives.

  19. "The brain is not fully matured until about the age of 25." (per the video).

    So, why do we send people to war at age 18?

  20. What fascinates me is that why is there neuroscience? Does the brain need to discover itself? If so, Why? It generates thoughts but it needs to know how and why it generates thoughts, what neuro pattern constitutes its ignorance. Why do we need to seek answers if everything is all there right in our brain?

  21. Don't give up on your dream to continue your consciousness beyond death. As you say, maybe the next generation of neuroscientists may unlock the design of consciousness, and we can use this knowledge to preserve our consciousness beyond death.

  22. This is literally a summary of everything from 1st year third level psychology. Unoriginal. If I hear about that bloody marshmallow test in yet another ted talk I'll scream!

  23. It's simple: You see, there was this primordial pool that somehow came into being and a plethora or other cosmic conditions came together that most all scientist agree is mathematically impossible, but, anyway, so it all just came about by accident in this primordial pool. And, that is what the "scientific" community, mostly, hang their hat on (in other words: have FAITH in). So, now you can all move on to other more important things as this mystery has been solved.

  24. Your brain is exactly the same as an antenna. Consciousness exists outside of our brain and throughout the universe. All information that it takes in and transmits occur outside of your skull. The neurons, neurotransmitters and chemicals in your brain cannot possibly create what your senses communicate to it. Consciousness has no boundaries. It's infinite. Time, space and Consciousness are the three infinites in this existence. But, consciousness rules everything. It is providential and doesn't judge. Consciousness is God.

  25. Science can figure out how things work. Science will never figure out why, ultimately, things work in such harmony to create everything we sense and everything the universe is at every moment of it's existence.

  26. It's absolutely non sense.
    How can you decide anything if you have no free will?
    Neuro-materialist-pseudo-scientists are trying to explain consciousness thru consequences of consciousness.
    The awareness is not the consciousness and they don't notice it.
    To be aware is a body response, a body interpretation. That's why neurons fire before a person is aware of what causes the firing of its neurons.
    But how this pseudo-science can explain the possibility for a person to exactly know what is going to happen before any neurons get contact with the event?
    Ignoring psychic abilities make these pseudo-scientists to create non-sense models.

  27. How does earth evolve if we don't have the freewill to create, imagine or produce – Art, music, technology, ect… We have unlimited abilities and need to center less on the why, how, where it takes away our freedom to evolve civilization….Just a thought.

  28. about the old mind control implant; go google scott crow, he calculated how it is even he dont even have that shjtty wireless 'satellite phone' implant. James Harken read my other comment, or you'll talk this shjt next 10 years before you find out. Oh well, i can copypaste it ', Other humans are connected to you, and increasing your use of your own attention ability. Then you look at the persons, and sense extra attention, mostly only when you look at other people,' then you think you're being stalked. relax, even they would know where you go because gps tracking possibility in your wireless implant, they dont want to hurt these persons who they use in their brain study program. Its old tape that effects to the bullshjt that voice to skull is saying. Their senses are connected to 20 other persons, and their attention is shared with these about 20 persons. Other humans are connected to you, and increasing your use of your own attention ability. Then you look at the persons, and sense extra attention, mostly only when you look at other people; then you think you're being stalked. relax, even they would know where you go because gps tracking possibility in your wireless implant, they dont want to hurt these persons who they use in their brain study program. Its old tape that effects to the bullshjt that voice to skull is saying. Their senses are connected to 20 other persons, and their attention is shared with these about 20 persons. There goes a story with audio that tells bad things, and they start looking into people with 20 persons attention sense stacked, and they believe someone is staring at them. theres never a proof of any crime. only that they have illegal nuclear battery implant put in them when they were young. its like a satellite phone, but it transmits your and other peoples senses back and forth. the “microwave harrasment” is disinformation, while the microwave really transmits your senses via satellite to another persons, like a phone. But its an analogic low quality system, hidden in your mid body, not in brain. There goes enough senseconductors to connect the implant to. What they really do ? they study how another person can learn what another person does, and they later compare the brains. Thats why they need real healthy persons, who are still immobile in their carehome, and people think those have sicness that they cant sense their surroundings, or dont sense their senses (because the senses are connected to another man) . google kyle ogden, “onetelemetryman” , and find that this is over 18 years old tech that worked same way 18 ago, so it couldnt be any shjtty old computer connection, its human to human connection, and the connected persons have worse situation than you. If you look at the clear blue sky, and see artifacts and tingling meaning your senses are effected by an implant. I kept the text short because im lazy. its only sad real persons 'reading your thoughts' or feeling your senses, who are connected to you, and they dont feel their own bodies. Then they study if those persons learn what the impanted guy learns. They see what you see, but even they cant see with their own eyes. its their imagination that flashes in peoples heads. These people dont know they are individual persons, and their memory doesn't work right. if NSA knew about people being mistreated, they would help you instead. Use Dewalt x-ray scanner, and keep it up boyss a story with audio that tells bad things, and they start looking into people with 20 persons attention sense stacked, and they believe someone is staring at them. theres never a proof of any crime. only that they have illegal nuclear battery implant put in them when they were young. its like a satellite phone, but it transmits your and other peoples senses back and forth. the “microwave harrasment” is disinformation, while the microwave really transmits your senses via satellite to another persons, like a phone. But its an analogic low quality system, hidden in your mid body, not in brain. There goes enough senseconductors to connect the implant to. What they really do ? they study how another person can learn what another person does, and they later compare the brains. Thats why they need real healthy persons, who are still immobile in their carehome, and people think those have sicness that they cant sense their surroundings, or dont sense their senses (because the senses are connected to another man) . google kyle ogden, “onetelemetryman” . If you look at the clear blue sky, and see artifacts and tingling meaning your senses are effected by an implant. I kept the text short because im lazy. its only sad real persons 'reading your thoughts' or feeling your senses, who are connected to you, and they dont feel their own bodies. Then they study if those persons learn what the impanted guy learns. They see what you see, but even they cant see with their own eyes. its their imagination that flashes in peoples heads. These people dont know they are individual persons, and their memory doesn't work right. if NSA knew about people being mistreated, they would help you instead. Use Dewalt x-ray materialscanner or rather portable xray machine, and keep it up boys

  29. She opens by talking about how she as a child got fascinated by mind, so she started looking for answers and arrived at the mechanics of the brain. I do not mean to sound negative or rude, but it's a little bit like wondering about universal motion and then only study the knee. They will hopefully one day realise that consciousness is not generated by the brain.

  30. What a materialistic talk she have given to us, I wander if she tries to be the new 'AI'.
    She did not dive in to herself probably, she's maybe not even part of Life.
    Do we really are getting dumber by time?

  31. Stop telling people they don't have free will lady!! Predicting whether you move your left or right hand is a 50% probability. The results were an average of a 60% probability while using brain scans and electrodes placed in certain areas of the brain -_- ……… You know what we do know? that telling people they don't have free will has dangerous effects on a person and society (its not ethical). And what's worse, you didn't even say anything interesting about consciousness…. Waste of time….

  32. To say that "neuron is the unit of thoughts, awareness or consciousness" is as meaningful as "cell is the unit of all biology".
    What does it tell us about the working mechanism of the system? Nothing. Same as saying that "humans are units of civilisation"; this information or reductionist approach doesn't improve our knowledge about civilisation.
    Similarly, saying that "there are more connection in brain than the number of stars/galaxies". So? There are more interactions among the people of a big city than the number of galaxies; what kind of perspective we obtained on human relationships in a given city using this comparison? Did we understand transport, entertainment, banking, real estate, art, health? Nothing.
    Please stop using the same nonsensical comparisons that doesn't have any potential to explain how mind really works. For that, you can stop assuming that neurons are the units of mind. This will take us nowhere…

  33. She’s lying. That study she talks about predicting one’s behavior 10 seconds prior, was only accurate 60% of the time with either lifting the right or left arm (accuracy without neuroimaging is 50%)

  34. The last frontier is THE CREATOR, brain is only the instrument we have to use in this short life on Earth to get in touch with the DIVINE . And second for our personal use.

  35. It's been my understanding that the reptilian and limbic portions of the brain are different: the limbic corresponds to the mammalian aspect — living in groups, sharing food, caring for the young. The reptilian section corresponds to our urge to fight or flee, kill indiscriminately, no sharing, etc. I think i read this in Carl Sagan's book, "The Dragons of Eden" an excellent read.

  36. i can tell for a fact that no one asks a question during their childhood and then work their way up to pursue it…it just doesn't happen… i am a psychologist and i can tell by her body language that she just want to show how awesome her life is.."look at me i just had a baby and i have a loving husband..and i got all my life when i was a kid.some kind of rivalry going on with her women friends.she is hot tho

  37. Hey ted camera guy, leave the dang camera on the images she shows so we can see what she's saying, don't just flash the pics quick then go back to watching her talk! Ya bum

  38. The missing link is intelligence…where is it from?
    Sub-conscious…unconscious…concious. The brain is only a instrument, a tool…which process and manipulates the information it receive through consciousness. Intelligence infiltrated the natural evolutionary process…a very long time ago…who are we really?
    Great talk Dr Berlin.
    It's time.
    💫⚡💞🌎💞⚡💫

  39. Self contradicting, says free will is an illusion and immediately says it is not there people will behave differently!. How? if it is just an illusion according to your theory pre-10:46 on this video, how is it post 10:50 on the same video people will choose differently just because they become aware it is illusion. What a contradiction in speech!.

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