How Repeated Concussions Damage Your Brain Forever


After repeated head impacts, experienced in
sports like American Football, the brain can begin to shrink and deform, causing dementia-like
symptoms. Why is this happening and can we stop it? Howdy gang, I’m Trace, thanks for watching
DNews today. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy or CTE is a serious condition first discovered
in the 1920s with boxers, because boxers get hit in the head, a lot… both during practice
and during a match. According to one medical examiner in a 1928 issue of the Journal of
the American Medical Association, “nearly one half of the fighters who have stayed in
the game long enough” will experience something they called being, “punch drunk,” “slug nutty,”
or, peculiarly, “cutting paper dolls.” In the 20s they termed this dementia pugilistica
— word of the day: pugilist, which means boxer, but today, we call this derangement
CTE. Even nearly 100 years ago, these specialists
were recognizing repeated cranial impact has huge implications. The brain is bound by the
same laws of physics as everything else and thus will move until something stops it, namely,
the skull, this is called a concussion. And even a minor one, has a serious affect on
your brainbox. If the smack is hard enough, the brain tissues can become deformed or permanently
damaged, even lesser sub-concussions, when taken together, can affect the brain long-term.
Basically, any activity where the head comes to a sudden stop, repeatedly, has the potential
to trigger concussions, and additively will cause this degenerative brain disease. CTE has been found in people who play American
football, ice hockey, soccer, rugby, boxing, and wrestling, plus members of the military!
Even people who only played in high school can develop CTE. This is shocking stuff! And
I just want to stop and say, more pads can not stop the brain from moving INSIDE the
skull, any more than a larger bumpers stop a person moving in a car crash. In another study from the 1920s, boxers’
brains were looked at after death, in an autopsy, which is when they realized something was
wrong… their brains had atrophied, or shrunk. CTE is
difficult to diagnose, because it manifests
as behavioral changes that mimic other brain disorders like Alzheimer’s or Parkinson’s.
Once the neurons and axons in the brain are permanently altered from the repeated impacts
so to is behavior, emotional control, memory, reasoning skills, physical and mental controls…
CTE affects everything. The brain reacts to these impacts by literally
shrinking — called cerebral atrophy. In modern studies, doctors found as much as a 30 percent
loss of the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes! The damage centers on collections of
neurons, infused with a protein called tau. Tau normally helps stabilize neurons in the
brain, but in CTE it manifests as neurofibrillary tangles, turning the brain a yellow color.
Neurofibrillary tangles are literally that, they look like the tau protein threads have
become bundled up and though how this happens isn’t entirely understood by science, all
the patients have these tau tangles. In the end, as the brain shrinks and the amount of
tangles grows, the person gets more aggressive and less emotionally and physically stable,
and, frighteningly, more suicidal. Obviously, this is all bad. CTE, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s are all tauopathic
diseases, and unfortunately, research on living people with these disorders is still ongoing,
and as of now there’s no cure. Which means, once CTE sets in, usually in
middle age, decades after the repeated impacts occurred, nothing can be done. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is manifesting
in athlete after athlete, because they’ve spent their whole careers smashing into one
another, either on purpose or on accident; and even this week, there was another death
attributed to the mental anguish that comes along with this brain disorder. In the end,
our brains are the source of everything we are. Sometimes, concussions can knock a person
unconscious, or worse, they can slip into a coma, but what exactly IS a coma? I’ve looked
into that too, right here. Does the discovery of CTE and it’s mental
and behavioral consequences make you think twice about joining sports? Or for encouraging
athletes to hit each other for our entertainment?

100 thoughts on “How Repeated Concussions Damage Your Brain Forever

  1. I read the title as "How Repeated Discussions Damage Your Brain Forever" LOL!!

    After reading it I was like OHHH! No WONDER! 😀

  2. Athletes know the consequences of their actions and are paid handsomely for it.

    I say, let athletes continue doing what they're doing and study their brains to help everyone else.

  3. To answer your question: Skateboarding was fun yet worrisome because of previous MTBI's, and of course, I was discouraged by the roughness of football and boxing.

  4. Could design a football helmet that decelerates the skull less quickly. One that let's it travel more distance before coming to a full stop: bigger helmet with thick, but not too dense padding, no?

  5. I've already taken whacks to the head a number of times, the last whopper was by a friend of mine who thought she was being funny… ._.

  6. I think it already happened to a lot of people. like nobody ever got hit by anything.
    of course dont let your head get hit a lot but there's nothing much be scared of

  7. I've had multiple concussions from abuse, crowd surfing, and sports. Maybe that's why my memory is so horrid.

  8. I would love to discuss brain traumas that began in toddler years .. ongoing into late 50's.
    Abuses.. assaults.. falls .. countless..
    x3 "diagnosed" concussions.. undoubtedly many many more ..
    Female
    No Dr.
    No family.
    Not willing to 'experiment' with crazy pills.. but .. I believe I 'could be' a tool to help ..
    I'm open to discussion ..

  9. Suffering from post concussion syndrome after years of rugby. For anybody reading this who has had a concussion, or worse–several, know that it's not worth it. It takes over your life.

  10. Isn't the real problem getting a second concussion before the first one heals because then the damage is done by orders of magnitude not just adding one concussion on top on another

  11. what about going at it hardcore? Can the act of moving the brain back and forth forcefully and vigorously can cause brain damage? Ladies and gentlemen, go nice and slow! Seriously though, can going at it like rabbits cause long term brain damage?

  12. I'm 21 years old and was a soccer player for 16 years; 8 concussions between 2005 and 2014 and I started experiencing the hard symptoms 1 year after my last concussion and it's still affecting me in every way. If competitive contact sports mean that much to you and want to push through just be smart. you don't feel it now..but pain will catch on at some point. just be smart.

  13. I think I got this I've boxing for over 15 years I have all this symptoms it affects everyday life for me but I can't find any help in England

  14. i want to watch prisoners dosed on bull shark testoterone and meth fight over land space and a volly ball..its like a tennis court only thers no net and the psychotic murderers need to learn to be gentle with the helium filled balloon or they lose a point. pushing the fragile balloon into the touch down zone ensures a victory point. would pay to watch

  15. "Why is this happening and can we stop it?"

    Makes about as much sense as positing a question relating to blunt-force trauma-induced brain injuries as it does to pose the question in relation to the crushed bone and compound fractures that would result if one clamped an industrial vise on one's hand.

  16. Everything u do can cause damage so videos like this shouldn't stop you doing what you love just be careful

  17. This seriously changed my idea to get into boxing or mma. Not worth it if my brain is gunna be this fucked up in 15 years. I understand it doesnt happen to everyone, but im not chancing it. I wanna be a smart and wise grandpa one day.

  18. I did read once that not drinking enough water before getting hit in the head leads to brain damage as the water acts as a cushion. Boxers who train just before a weigh-in by sweating weight off will be prone to this. So, drink plenty of water, it also cools the body down during sporting activity as it leaves the body in the form of sweat thus cooling the skin by evapouration.

  19. Baseball, basketball, and soccer are clean sports. Football, boxing, and MMA are not real sports. They're barbaric. A sport shouldn't ruin your health.

  20. I think that all NFL football players should have an MRI of their brain at the start of football PRACTICE season, start of GAME season, Middle of Game Season, and End of Game Season; as well as college/university football players, and high school students playing football (for them, one MRI before first practice and one more after final game). Make it a national law in the name of medicine.

  21. my father is 68yo.. he drink alcohol to much (somebody told us that wen he was drunk he accidentaly bang his head in the floor) after that day past he suffer fever then cannot breath so we rush him to the hospital he was chilling.. he was confine in the hospital for 5days now the diagnose of the doctor is low potasium, somethings wrong in his heart, lots of plamn in his lungs and theres a bacterial in his kidney.. aside of that we notice his not in his mind he talk differently i mean something wrongs with his memory we cant talk to him seriously because his not in his mind..

  22. Research needs to take a different approach. Stat thinking about the problem in a different way. We just might, it is a hypothesis, but might have an answer. Check this out…
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pHwK3UuW2XQ

  23. I had 4 concussions in one year, 2 earlier in life, and just had another or maybe not but I did get knocked out for over 10 seconds and I still really want to play sports. IDK what to do, who to tell, where to go, and what my life will be like in the future… I really need help right now please can somebody help me.

  24. Have had multiple concussions and am with the Banner Conc. Clinic. They disagree. It only happens if you get a concussion before the first conc. healed.

  25. The thing is even though I realize that I could ruin my health over this I just can't help myself the bloodlust in my to fight is so pressing it's almost irresistible and it's scary because I honestly think to myself is it worth it

  26. I only took about 5-7 hits to the head in my childhood, but I feel it had an effect on my mood & behavior. Once was a hit to the back of the head with a metal baseball bat, another was being dropped from the cheerleading pyramid & hitting the back of my head. Another time I was struck so hard w/ a basketball I fell to the ground. I can only imagine how it must be for kids who played football or other contact sports.

  27. Mom, dad dont let your youngsters get involved with this football nonsense. It's insane. Destroy National Felony League by starting at pop warner level.

  28. Can hitting a curb at 35mph during the winter time, cause enough displacement ~ acceleration/deceleration forces to cause a minor concussion ?

  29. How repeated use of CBD and high dose omega threes helps repair TBI
    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27889412

    Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Apr 3;75:94-105. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2016.11.005. Epub 2016 Nov 23.
    Cannabidiol reduces neuroinflammation and promotes neuroplasticity and functional recovery after brain ischemia.
    Mori MA1, Meyer E1, Soares LM1, Milani H1, Guimarães FS2, de Oliveira RM3.
    Author information
    Abstract

    This study investigated the effects of cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychotomimetic phytochemical present in Cannabis sativa, on the cognitive and emotional impairments induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in mice. Using a multi-tiered behavioral testing battery during 21days, we found that BCCAO mice exhibited long-lasting functional deficits reflected by increase in anxiety-like behavior (day 9), memory impairments (days 12-18) and despair-like behavior (day 21). Short-term CBD 10mg/kg treatment prevented the cognitive and emotional impairments, attenuated hippocampal neurodegeneration and white matter (WM) injury, and reduced glial response that were induced by BCCAO. In addition, ischemic mice treated with CBD exhibited an increase in the hippocampal brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels. CBD also stimulated neurogenesis and promoted dendritic restructuring in the hippocampus of BCCAO animals. Collectively, the present results demonstrate that short-term CBD treatment results in global functional recovery in ischemic mice and impacts multiple and distinct targets involved in the pathophysiology of brain ischemic injury.

    https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28261100

    Front Pharmacol. 2017 Feb 17;8:69. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00069. eCollection 2017.
    Endocannabinoids: A Promising Impact for Traumatic Brain Injury.
    Schurman LD1, Lichtman AH1.
    Author information
    Abstract

    The endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) system regulates a diverse array of physiological processes and unsurprisingly possesses considerable potential targets for the potential treatment of numerous disease states, including two receptors (i.e., CB1 and CB2 receptors) and enzymes regulating their endogenous ligands N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide) and 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG). Increases in brain levels of endocannabinoids to pathogenic events suggest this system plays a role in compensatory repair mechanisms. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) pathology remains mostly refractory to currently available drugs, perhaps due to its heterogeneous nature in etiology, clinical presentation, and severity. Here, we review pre-clinical studies assessing the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids and manipulations of the endocannabinoid system to ameliorate TBI pathology.

    Specifically, manipulations of endocannabinoid degradative enzymes (e.g., fatty acid amide hydrolase, monoacylglycerol lipase, and α/β-hydrolase domain-6), CB1 and CB2 receptors, and their endogenous ligands have shown promise in modulating cellular and molecular hallmarks of TBI pathology such as; cell death, excitotoxicity, neuroinflammation, cerebrovascular breakdown, and cell structure and remodeling. TBI-induced behavioral deficits, such as learning and memory, neurological motor impairments, post-traumatic convulsions or seizures, and anxiety also respond to manipulations of the endocannabinoid system. As such, the endocannabinoid system possesses potential drugable receptor and enzyme targets for the treatment of diverse TBI pathology. Yet, full characterization of TBI-induced changes in endocannabinoid ligands, enzymes, and receptor populations will be important to understand that role this system plays in TBI pathology. Promising classes of compounds, such as the plant-derived phytocannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoids, and endocannabinoids, as well as their non-cannabinoid receptor targets, such as TRPV1 receptors, represent important areas of basic research and potential therapeutic interest to treat TBI.

  30. I broke my nose and almost died from it going into my brain. I have also had upwards of 7 concussions one causing me in and out of consciousness as well as me forgetting and no remembering bits and pieces for about a month. I black out, get blurred vision and suffer from severe migraines as well as some mental illnesses. I can no longer do sports and go to therapy and see a neuropsychiatrist, is there anything I can do to try and get better or am i just kind of screwed.

  31. Ive had two concussions in the last 6 years. One from hockey, helmet to helmet. The other from wake boarding, caught toe side on landing. After the second I had noticeable 'brain fog'. Id be interested in knowing how many mild to moderate impacts it would take to cause CTE onset.

  32. I train muay thai kickboxing and rugby and have had so many hard head hits and concussions I want to get a brain scan to see what's going on but I don't have a legitimate reason so I think I will have cte when I'm 30

  33. I've been boxing for 3 years. & I do think about this from time to time. Sometimes I feel it isn't worth the risk of developing CTE. However, when I stop boxing for 2 to 3 months at a time so that I can better balance a full time job & college I become depressed. The gym calls me every night. I see my boxing gear in my room, I see professionals on tv, i rewatch figjts from boxers ive idolized since i was 10, & I see IG posts from members of my gym winning tournaments & I WANT in. I love the discipline & pride that comes with it. To test my physical limits & the competitiveness of it all. I can't help but to go back.

  34. I got 3 severe concussions in one year for hockey and was forced by doctors to quit sports forever. This is done serious stuff. Good vid

  35. Of course the usual impact sports apologists come out in force in a pathetic attempt to justify brain trauma with all the typical tropes such as "cant live wrapped in cotton wool", " life is inherently risky", bla bla bla etc. It really is amusing watching their childish state of denial

  36. man i am so fucked. im only 14 but i am playing rugby for 6+ years and have had 4 concussions so far mostly from when i was 11/13 and have had moer than 1000 head hits im for sure gonna get cte when im older fucking hell man

  37. He's wrong when he says larger pads don't help. Pads absorb some of the energy and begin the deceleration of the hit earlier, meaning less acceleration/deceleration reaches the brain. Another point is that as CTE progresses and the brain shrinks, further hits would actually cause MORE instantaneous acceleration/deceleration of the brain as the smaller brain now has more room to move within the skull.

  38. This scares me and the only time i have been knocked unconscious once was like 10 years ago when i was 13
    I was playing and slipped and fell on a slightly pointy slightly rock
    After i waked up i was nauseous and puking alot
    Almost any smell or motion could make me puke
    I hope to god im not gonna develope brain damage in the future

  39. I banged my head HARD on the low door frames in my ex's cottage. It happened 3 times in all. The last occasion was when I was going upstairs and the top of my head smashed in to a wooden joist. It knocked me down and I had a headache and dizziness with a sore spot for 3 weeks. Could I get CTE? Or does it have to happen all the time?

  40. I’ve had 5 concussions and I’m still recovering.. It really messes everything up for you. I can’t play sports anymore. I can’t do most of the things I used to. I’m spreading the word by my Facebook page. “ Zoë’s Journey I am Concussed. “ Everyone be aware no tbi isn’t important!!

  41. Every body cant live forever. For many professional sports is a way out of hell. We shouldn't force our views on the world no matter how correct and healthy they may be, because life isn't that simple and straightforward. If that were the case and humans should stay away from all things unhealthy or dangerous, there would be no cops, military, racers, sports players of any sort. People can find almost any reason to stop doing something.

  42. Drinking alchool damages the brain more than boxing,stress damages the brain and whole body more than boxing,if you play soccer you can hurt yourself more than in a boxing match because you will try to slip block bob and weave ,in soccer you dont train how to not get damaged.if you are a complete beginner and fight against a higher level fighter you will get hit and hurt because you are not trained ,even in that case it will not happen 24 hours.plus the gloves have antishock that is why there are sparring gloves and bag gloves

  43. When you will reach a certain age more cells of your whole body will die more and that is ageing but it is not that you will get older from boxing,in fact practice boxing it makes you feel and look younger and even be more intelligent and brave,because it is just like chess and it is good for keeping stress levels very low.the major part of people dying young are from heart attack,diabetes,aids,cancer, and a lot of mental diseases come from not practising sport.boxing is the most complete sport of all and requires a lot of physical and mental abilities.you should do more videos against smoking drugs, and alchool which REALLY DAMAGE your body beside spending your hard earned money…

  44. Damn, played football like 10 years and I was that crazy guy going for helmet to helmet all the time.. I recall having white flashes after like 1/4 of all the hits.. bad stuff ahah. My kids won't play that's for damn sure.

  45. This is a tremendous over simplification of CTE. There is not a consensus for CTE, what it is caused by, and whether or not it is related to the symptoms. There are now brains that have CTE pathology but no history of brain trauma or contact sports. There are also many with the tau accumulation and no cognitive or behavioral symptoms. Essentially, CTE is meaningless at this point. Smashing heads + many other factors can equal problems later on but it certainly is not a guarantee or even likelihood.

  46. So you guys did the best job in the world to go around giving credit to the African man who discovered and named CTE and its effects that we know today I see. Interesting interesting interest….

  47. Thank you I am researching CTE because my boyfriend was a dirtbike racer & has developed this after taking many crashes & head injuries. He had an episode the other night where he really couldn't control his emotions. When he came to he felt so bad for his outburst. But it was all really scary in the moment.

  48. Nice. I can remember how many times i hit my head hard when i cannot solve a problem. Should i continue to hit harder?

  49. I have had multiple close headed injuries growing up, get random tremors, phantom smells, anxiety, memory issues and vivid dream recall most nights, have a history of fights and selfharm. The docs keep trying different meds and won't give me rescans. Sucks because I know why and they just throw pills that make it worse at me. I will be good for a few months a a switch will flip. First they called it anxiety and depression now they call it PTSD. Feels like horrible, feeling like they won't get to the Crux of the issue untill I'm dead prematurely. They have record of many head injuries… Why do they keep playing with meds and changing the diagnosis. I want to be normal and have a girlfriend and start a family and be stable… But I can't do that to someone when I know that switch will flip and I will let them down even though it's the last thing I want to do. I have been learning Spanish and the guitar for a while now to try exercise the brain but it feels like the damage from all these injuries is a wall I can ever get over. Arrrhhh so tired of it. It drains me more everyday. I'm 28 now and all my friends have families and I just sit stagnant

  50. For myself I never played football… is as far back as I can remember I was repeatedly hit in the head by my mother, 16 years later when I decided to leave home. I too deal today with CTE I have had countless issues and problems dealing with people my entire life and here I sit at 55…I have tried to kill myself three times… not one human being out there understands what I'm dealing with or even how I feel… protect your head don't go into football or boxing or any type of fighting sport it's only for the entertainment of others, they're not going to be there for you in the end, because they dont know the ramifications. I have had countless issues and problems dealing with people my entire life and here I sit at 55 trying to kill myself three times and not one human being out there understands what I'm dealing with or even how I feel…protect your heads my prayers are with you.

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