Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (History).wmv

One book that every psychology major should
be acquainted with is what’s called the DSM or the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of
Mental Disorders. We are currently using the book the DSM IV
TR which means the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Disorders. Since 1952, there have been several editions
of this particular manual. The first one DSM I and one we’re currently
using called the DSM IV TR or the DSM IV Textual Revision, is what the TR stands for. This is a very important book. It’s a book that deals with standardizing
all of the nomenclature that psychologists use so that when you’ve got a psychologist
in Chicago and a psychologist in San Diego, when they’re reading the term about a mental
disorder, they’ll know what it is and they’ll both have the same definition. The DSM actually started in about 1952 when
the APA decided that they wanted to start standardizing this nomenclature so everybody
would understand. The DSM I was 130 pages long listing 203 mental
disorders. It was an important tool for psychologists,
psychiatrists and any clinician to be able to use to make sure that they were all speaking
exactly the same language. So after the DSM I was published shortly after
World War II, then came the DSM II in 1968 and it was 134 pages long. It had listed 182 mental disorders. This was the famous edition where there were
a lot of protests by a gay lobby group and so the homosexual terminology was taken out
of this book and no longer was homosexuality considered to be a disorder. Then in 1980 came the DSM III and the DSM
III R. Again, each book gets a little bit longer. This one was 494 pages long and listed 265
diagnostic categories. Again, the whole purpose was to try to make
this terminology that’s used in Psychological diagnosis standard from one part of the country
to the other part of the country. It’s a very important tool for Psychologists
to be able to use, a manual such as this. Again, please notice how each addition gets
longer and longer. The DSM IV and the DSM IV TR, originally published
in 1994, 886 pages long, listing 297 disorders. The DSM 5 which is to be the next edition
is scheduled for publication in 2013. It’s interesting to note that the American
Psychiatric Association no longer uses the term or the number in terms of a Roman numeral
but with the DSM 5 has changed that to the English number, number 5. One of the most outstanding characteristics
of the DSM is the Multi-Axial System. In the DSM IV there are 5 Axes. Just consider these axes like a chapter or
a sub-category describing different ways of looking at these disorders. Each Axis contains a different context for
these disorders, mental disorders, to be viewed from 5 different axes. Axis 1 describes the clinical symptoms that
cause significant impairment. Disorders are grouped into different categories,
including adjustment disorders, anxiety disorders and pervasive developmental disorders. Axis 2 in the DSM IV TR describes personality
disorders and mental retardation. It’s an important segment of the book that
focuses primarily on long-term problems that tend to affect negatively other areas of the
patient’s life. Such as self-care and interpersonal skills. Personality and mental retardation was Axis
2 and Axis 3, medical conditions. This is where the interphase occurs between
psychology and medical issues. These issues include medical conditions that
may influence or worsen disorders that are found in Axis 1 and 2. Such things as HIV/Aids or traumatic brain
injuries. Axis 4 describes psychosocial and environmental
problems. Any social or environmental problem that may
impact Axis 1 or 2, these disorders are accounted for in the Axis 4 assessment. Relocation, divorce, death, any kind of loss. Axis 5 is the global assessment of functioning
or called the GAF scale. This Axis allows clinicians to rate the clients
overall level of functioning. Based on this assessment, clinicians can better
understand how the other four Axis are affected by the patient’s lifestyle. Well the DSM IV TR is simply an effort to
standardize nomenclature of Psychiatry and to bring mental disorders out of the shadows
and to make sure that all of the these disorders are confined to one standard definition, the
DSM, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders provides that standard. It’s kind of like a dictionary of psychological
diagnosis. If you’re a student in psychology, particularly
if you are a Psych major, you may want to make this book an addition to your library. The DSM IV TR.

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